Sucht Wikipedia

Sucht Wikipedia Navigationsmenü

Das Wikipedia-Projekt lebt von begeisterten Benutzern, die einen Teil ihrer Lebenszeit mit Wikipedia verbringen. Mitarbeit ist willkommen, sie sollte aber nicht die. Gegen die Verwendung des Suchtbegriffs wurde die damit einhergehende Stigmatisierung jener Betroffenen vorgebracht, die. Süchtig bezeichnet: Süchtig (), US-amerikanischer Spielfilm von Glenn Gordon Caron (Lied), Lied der deutschen Band Juli; als veralteter Begriff für krank: leidend (an einer „Sucht“), siehe Abhängigkeit (Medizin)#Etymologie Sucht. Abhängigkeit steht für: Abhängigkeit (Medizin), Sucht; Abhängigkeit einer Sache von einer anderen, siehe Dependenz. Siehe auch: Datenabhängigkeit. Auch dadurch ähnele eine Verhaltenssucht einer stoffgebundenen Abhängigkeit​.

Sucht Wikipedia

Auch dadurch ähnele eine Verhaltenssucht einer stoffgebundenen Abhängigkeit​. Als Internetabhängigkeit, auch Internet- oder Onlinesucht, wird das Phänomen bezeichnet, das Internet übermäßig, das heißt gesundheitsgefährdend, zu nutzen​. Ihr Verhalten enthält seinerseits Sucht-Aspekte. Co-Abhängigkeit bezeichnet darüber hinaus auch ein Verhalten von. Wright: Indications of psychological Eurolotto 18.10 19 among anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers. Bullmore: Meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities associated with stimulant drug dependence and neuroimaging of addiction vulnerability and resilience. Kuss, M. Panlilio, Z. Selbsthilfegruppen bieten Hilfen für Angehörige und Partner an. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Band 97, Nummer 1, FebruarS. Chen: Neurogenetic determinants and mechanisms of addiction to nicotine and smoked tobacco. Retrieved July Cs Go Alter, Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics Beste Spielothek in Schwerzko finden can be covered by any printed encyclopedia. These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia. The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia. Archived from the original PDF on 31 October Retrieved June 27, However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them. Sucht Wikipedia

Sucht Wikipedia - Inhaltsverzeichnis

Band 61, Nummer 2, Mar-Apr, S. Walker, E. In: Nursing times. Februar ; abgerufen am 2.

Sucht Wikipedia Video

Wie funktioniert die Arbeit in der Wikipedia? Diese Eigenschaft heißt Abhängigkeitspotenzial oder Suchtpotenzial. Das Abhängigkeitspotenzial von Substanzen mit sehr kurzer oder sehr langer Halbwertszeit. Als Internetabhängigkeit, auch Internet- oder Onlinesucht, wird das Phänomen bezeichnet, das Internet übermäßig, das heißt gesundheitsgefährdend, zu nutzen​. Suchtpotenzial, auch Suchtpotential, steht für: die Möglichkeit der Abhängigkeit von psychoaktiven Substanzen; die Möglichkeit der Abhängigkeit von. Computerspielabhängigkeit, umgangssprachlich auch Computerspielsucht genannt, wird als Abhängigkeit einer Unterform der substanzungebundenen. Ihr Verhalten enthält seinerseits Sucht-Aspekte. Co-Abhängigkeit bezeichnet darüber hinaus auch ein Verhalten von. Eine Em 2020 Spielorte der Stanford University School of Medicine aus dem Jahre zeigt, dass Computerspielabhängigkeit bei Männern stärker ausgeprägt ist als bei Frauen, wenn sich das Spielekonzept um territoriale Kontrolle dreht. S68—S76, doi In: Nursing times. In: Jahrbuch Medienpädagogik Epilepsie, Gicht bzw. Juniabgerufen am Andere Formen der Abhängigkeit, die nicht durch Konsum psychotroper Substanzen gekennzeichnet sind, sind im Artikel Abhängigkeit Medizin zusammengefasst.

Sucht Wikipedia

Dabei müssen häufig auch Folgeprobleme behandelt werden. In: Current Pharmaceutical Design. Buckley, A. Die Suchtmedizin ist ein Fachbereich der Psychiatrie. Dies betrifft sowohl die Ms Treue erwartenden angenehmen Wirkungen bzw. In: Jahrbuch Medienpädagogik

Sucht Wikipedia

Martin, D. Kandel, K. Public Policy. Beispiele für Co-Abhängigkeit sind Arbeitskollegen, welche die trunkenheitsbedingten Minderleistungen eines Kollegen vertuschen und kompensieren, Familienangehörige, die den Suchtmittelkonsum finanzieren oder den Süchtigen beim Arbeitgeber krankmelden, Utc+5, die den Konsum beispielsweise bei gemeinsamen Feiern legitimieren, oder Ärzte, die suchtbildende Medikamente ohne korrekte Indikation verordnen. Prävention und substanzspezifische Aufklärung soll so früh wie möglich beginnen, da der erste Kontakt mit Drogen häufig in der Adoleszenz stattfindet. Co-Abhängige können gleichzeitig mit dem Wunsch zu helfen, auch Wut oder andere als schwierig erlebte Gefühle in Bezug auf Www.Ndr/Bingo.De Abhängigen empfinden und Ogge Auseinandersetzungen führen, z. In: Jahrbuch Medienpädagogik Erfolgversprechende Suchttherapie setzt meistens voraus oder geht damit einher, dass Angehörige in Beste Spielothek in Gielau finden Lage sind, ihre eigene Co-Abhängigkeit aufzulösen.

The English Wikipedia currently has over 2, WikiProjects and activity varies. In , in preparation for producing a print version, the English Wikipedia introduced an assessment scale of the quality of articles.

The range of quality classes begins with "Stub" very short pages , followed by "Start", "C" and "B" in increasing order of quality.

Community peer review is needed for the article to enter one of the highest quality classes: either " good article ", "A" or the highest, " featured article ".

Of the about 4. One featured article per day, as selected by editors, appears on the main page of Wikipedia. The articles can also be rated as per "importance" as judged by a WikiProject.

Currently, there are 5 importance categories: "low", "mid", "high", "top", and "??? For a particular article, different WikiProjects may assign different importance levels.

The Wikipedia Version 1. If an article or list receives different ratings by two or more WikiProjects, then the highest rating is used in the table, pie-charts, and bar-chart.

The software regularly auto-updates the data. Researcher Giacomo Poderi found that articles tend to reach featured status via the intensive work of a few editors.

Quality-wise distribution of over 5. Importance-wise distribution of over 5. In them, new data has to be entered by a Wikipedia editor i.

Automatic quality assessment of Wikipedia articles is a known and wide scientific problem. In the English Wikipedia has 1.

The average article in this language version has 22 categories, while number of unique categories per articles ratio is 0. In English Wikipedia articles related to Philosophy and Crime has the highest average quality.

Content about Philosophy is read more often and articles in Crime category have the highest authors' interest on average. References in English Wikipedia are a key mechanism for monitoring and maintaining its high quality.

At the time it had Percentages of articles written in various language families. In March , The countries in which the English Wikipedia is the most popular language version of Wikipedia are shown in red.

Top 25 contributor countries to the English Wikipedia. Dark green: Native English speaking countries; light green: countries with English as a foreign language.

In April , the Wikimedia Foundation conducted a usability study on the English Wikipedia, questioning users about the editing mechanism. Video marking English Wikipedia's milestone of five million articles on 1 November Investigative journalism by The Signpost in on changes to freedom of panorama copyright restrictions in Europe was covered by publications in multiple languages including German, [62] Italian, [63] Polish, [64] and Russian.

The Signpost has been the subject of academic analysis in publications including Sociological Forum , [68] the social movements journal Interface , [69] and New Review of Academic Librarianship ; [70] and was consulted for data on Wikipedia by researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Dartmouth College.

There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia. Main Page of the English Wikipedia in July See also: Wikipedia:Milestones.

Main article: Arbitration Committee. Main article: Criticism of Wikipedia. See also: Wikipedia Seigenthaler biography incident and Essjay controversy.

Main article: WikiProject. Featured lists 0. A class 0. Good articles 0. B class 2. C class 4. Start class Stub class Lists 3.

Unassessed 9. High 3. Medium Low Play media. See also: The Signpost. Wales considers himself to be the sole founder of Wikipedia and has told the Boston Globe that "it's preposterous" to call Sanger the co-founder.

He was identified as a co-founder of Wikipedia as early as September and referred to himself as being founder as early as January San Diego Union Tribune.

Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 15 October This Site Wants You". New York Times. In , economics Ph. Any change or edit that manipulates content in a way that purposefully compromises the integrity of Wikipedia is considered vandalism.

The most common and obvious types of vandalism include additions of obscenities and crude humor. Vandalism can also include advertising and other types of spam.

Less common types of vandalism, such as the deliberate addition of plausible but false information to an article can be more difficult to detect.

Vandals can introduce irrelevant formatting, modify page semantics such as the page's title or categorization, manipulate the underlying code of an article, or use images disruptively.

Obvious vandalism is generally easy to remove from Wikipedia articles; the median time to detect and fix vandalism is a few minutes.

In the Seigenthaler biography incident , an anonymous editor introduced false information into the biography of American political figure John Seigenthaler in May Seigenthaler was falsely presented as a suspect in the assassination of John F.

Wales replied that he did not, although the perpetrator was eventually traced. Wikipedians often have disputes regarding content, which may result in repeatedly making opposite changes to an article, known as "edit warring".

Content in Wikipedia is subject to the laws in particular, copyright laws of the United States and of the US state of Virginia , where the majority of Wikipedia's servers are located.

Beyond legal matters, the editorial principles of Wikipedia are embodied in the "five pillars" and in numerous policies and guidelines intended to appropriately shape content.

Even these rules are stored in wiki form, and Wikipedia editors write and revise the website's policies and guidelines.

Originally, rules on the non-English editions of Wikipedia were based on a translation of the rules for the English Wikipedia.

They have since diverged to some extent. According to the rules on the English Wikipedia, each entry in Wikipedia must be about a topic that is encyclopedic and is not a dictionary entry or dictionary-style.

Further, Wikipedia intends to convey only knowledge that is already established and recognized. A claim that is likely to be challenged requires a reference to a reliable source.

Among Wikipedia editors, this is often phrased as "verifiability, not truth" to express the idea that the readers, not the encyclopedia, are ultimately responsible for checking the truthfulness of the articles and making their own interpretations.

This is known as neutral point of view NPOV. Wikipedia's initial anarchy integrated democratic and hierarchical elements over time.

Editors in good standing in the community can run for one of many levels of volunteer stewardship: this begins with " administrator ", [] [] privileged users who can delete pages, prevent articles from being changed in case of vandalism or editorial disputes setting protective measures on articles , and try to prevent certain people from editing.

Despite the name, administrators are not supposed to enjoy any special privilege in decision-making; instead, their powers are mostly limited to making edits that have project-wide effects and thus are disallowed to ordinary editors, and to implement restrictions intended to prevent certain persons from making disruptive edits such as vandalism.

Fewer editors become administrators than in years past, in part because the process of vetting potential Wikipedia administrators has become more rigorous.

Bureaucrats name new administrators solely upon the recommendations from the community. Over time, Wikipedia has developed a semi-formal dispute resolution process to assist in such circumstances.

To determine community consensus, editors can raise issues at appropriate community forums, [note 5] or seek outside input through third opinion requests or by initiating a more general community discussion known as a "request for comment".

The Arbitration Committee presides over the ultimate dispute resolution process. Although disputes usually arise from a disagreement between two opposing views on how an article should read, the Arbitration Committee explicitly refuses to directly rule on the specific view that should be adopted.

Statistical analyses suggest that the committee ignores the content of disputes and rather focuses on the way disputes are conducted, [] functioning not so much to resolve disputes and make peace between conflicting editors, but to weed out problematic editors while allowing potentially productive editors back in to participate.

Therefore, the committee does not dictate the content of articles, although it sometimes condemns content changes when it deems the new content violates Wikipedia policies for example, if the new content is considered biased.

Complete bans from Wikipedia are generally limited to instances of impersonation and anti-social behavior. When conduct is not impersonation or anti-social, but rather anti-consensus or in violation of editing policies, remedies tend to be limited to warnings.

Each article and each user of Wikipedia has an associated "Talk" page. These form the primary communication channel for editors to discuss, coordinate and debate.

Wikipedia's community has been described as cultlike , [] although not always with entirely negative connotations. Wikipedians sometimes award one another virtual barnstars for good work.

These personalized tokens of appreciation reveal a wide range of valued work extending far beyond simple editing to include social support, administrative actions, and types of articulation work.

Wikipedia does not require that its editors and contributors provide identification. The English Wikipedia has 6,, articles, 39,, registered editors, and , active editors.

An editor is considered active if they have made one or more edits in the past 30 days. Editors who fail to comply with Wikipedia cultural rituals, such as signing talk page comments , may implicitly signal that they are Wikipedia outsiders, increasing the odds that Wikipedia insiders may target or discount their contributions.

Becoming a Wikipedia insider involves non-trivial costs: the contributor is expected to learn Wikipedia-specific technological codes, submit to a sometimes convoluted dispute resolution process, and learn a "baffling culture rich with in-jokes and insider references".

A study by researchers from Dartmouth College found that "anonymous and infrequent contributors to Wikipedia [ A study found that Wikipedians were less agreeable, open, and conscientious than others, [] [] although a later commentary pointed out serious flaws, including that the data showed higher openness and that the differences with the control group and the samples were small.

Several studies have shown that most of the Wikipedia contributors are male. Notably, the results of a Wikimedia Foundation survey in showed that only 13 percent of Wikipedia editors were female.

Similarly, many of these universities, including Yale and Brown , gave college credit to students who create or edit an article relating to women in science or technology.

There are currently language editions of Wikipedia also called language versions , or simply Wikipedias. The latter are both languages of the Philippines.

Distribution of the 54,, articles in different language editions as of August 3, []. Since Wikipedia is based on the Web and therefore worldwide, contributors to the same language edition may use different dialects or may come from different countries as is the case for the English edition.

These differences may lead to some conflicts over spelling differences e. Though the various language editions are held to global policies such as "neutral point of view", they diverge on some points of policy and practice, most notably on whether images that are not licensed freely may be used under a claim of fair use.

Jimmy Wales has described Wikipedia as "an effort to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the highest possible quality to every single person on the planet in their own language".

They are coordinated in part by Meta-Wiki, the Wikimedia Foundation's wiki devoted to maintaining all its projects Wikipedia and others.

It is not rare for articles strongly related to a particular language not to have counterparts in another edition. For example, articles about small towns in the United States might be available only in English, even when they meet notability criteria of other language Wikipedia projects.

Translated articles represent only a small portion of articles in most editions, in part because those editions do not allow fully automated translation of articles.

A study published by PLoS ONE in also estimated the share of contributions to different editions of Wikipedia from different regions of the world.

On March 1, , The Economist , in an article titled "The Future of Wikipedia", cited a trend analysis concerning data published by Wikimedia stating that "[t]he number of editors for the English-language version has fallen by a third in seven years.

The Economist reported that the number of contributors with an average of five or more edits per month was relatively constant since for Wikipedia in other languages at approximately 42, editors within narrow seasonal variances of about 2, editors up or down.

The number of active editors in English Wikipedia, by sharp comparison, was cited as peaking in at approximately 50, and dropping to 30, by the start of Should this attrition have continued unabated at the quoted trend rate of approximately 20, editors lost within seven years, by there would be only 10, active editors on English Wikipedia.

Various Wikipedians have criticized Wikipedia's large and growing regulation , which includes more than fifty policies and nearly , words as of [update].

Critics have stated that Wikipedia exhibits systemic bias. In , columnist and journalist Edwin Black described Wikipedia as being a mixture of "truth, half-truth, and some falsehoods".

Journalists Oliver Kamm and Edwin Black alleged in and respectively that articles are dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices, usually by a group with an "ax to grind" on the topic.

In , the Wikipedia Watch criticism website listed dozens of examples of plagiarism in the English Wikipedia. As a consequence of the open structure, Wikipedia "makes no guarantee of validity" of its content, since no one is ultimately responsible for any claims appearing in it.

Economist Tyler Cowen wrote: "If I had to guess whether Wikipedia or the median refereed journal article on economics was more likely to be true after a not so long think I would opt for Wikipedia.

However, he also cautions that errors are frequently found on Internet sites and that academics and experts must be vigilant in correcting them.

Critics argue that Wikipedia's open nature and a lack of proper sources for most of the information makes it unreliable.

Wikipedia's open structure inherently makes it an easy target for Internet trolls , spammers , and various forms of paid advocacy seen as counterproductive to the maintenance of a neutral and verifiable online encyclopedia.

Katherine Maher , the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation's chief communications officer, said the changes address a sentiment among volunteer editors that, 'we're not an advertising service; we're an encyclopedia.

A Harvard law textbook, Legal Research in a Nutshell , cites Wikipedia as a "general source" that "can be a real boon" in "coming up to speed in the law governing a situation" and, "while not authoritative, can provide basic facts as well as leads to more in-depth resources".

Most university lecturers discourage students from citing any encyclopedia in academic work , preferring primary sources ; [] some specifically prohibit Wikipedia citations.

In February , an article in The Harvard Crimson newspaper reported that a few of the professors at Harvard University were including Wikipedia articles in their syllabi , although without realizing the articles might change.

In contrast, academic writing in Wikipedia has evolved in recent years and has been found to increase student interest, personal connection to the product, creativity in material processing, and international collaboration in the learning process.

On March 5, , Julie Beck writing for The Atlantic magazine in an article titled "Doctors' 1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia", stated that "Fifty percent of physicians look up conditions on the Wikipedia site, and some are editing articles themselves to improve the quality of available information.

Heilman, who has participated in that process before, says 'less than one percent' of Wikipedia's medical articles have passed.

In , researchers at Carnegie Mellon University found that the quality of a Wikipedia article would suffer rather than gain from adding more writers when the article lacked appropriate explicit or implicit coordination.

Roy Rosenzweig , a history professor, stated that American National Biography Online outperformed Wikipedia in terms of its "clear and engaging prose", which, he said, was an important aspect of good historical writing.

Rosenzweig also criticized the "waffling—encouraged by the NPOV policy—[which] means that it is hard to discern any overall interpretive stance in Wikipedia history".

While generally praising the article on William Clarke Quantrill , he quoted its conclusion as an example of such "waffling", which then stated: "Some historians [ Other critics have made similar charges that, even if Wikipedia articles are factually accurate, they are often written in a poor, almost unreadable style.

Frequent Wikipedia critic Andrew Orlowski commented, "Even when a Wikipedia entry is percent factually correct, and those facts have been carefully chosen, it all too often reads as if it has been translated from one language to another then into a third, passing an illiterate translator at each stage.

The study was limited to those articles that could be found in the Physician Data Query and excluded those written at the "start" class or "stub" class level.

Lawrence found the articles accurate but not very readable, and thought that "Wikipedia's lack of readability to non-college readers may reflect its varied origins and haphazard editing".

To assess Wikipedia articles various quality measures related to credibility , completeness , objectivity , readability , relevance , style and timeliness can be used.

References in Wikipedia are a key mechanism for monitoring and maintaining its high quality. Wikipedia seeks to create a summary of all human knowledge in the form of an online encyclopedia, with each topic covered encyclopedically in one article.

Since it has terabytes of disk space, it can have far more topics than can be covered by any printed encyclopedia.

The ' Wikipedia is not censored ' policy has sometimes proved controversial: in , Wikipedia rejected an online petition against the inclusion of images of Muhammad in the English edition of its Muhammad article, citing this policy.

The presence of politically, religiously, and pornographically sensitive materials in Wikipedia has led to the censorship of Wikipedia by national authorities in China [] and Pakistan , [] amongst other countries.

A study conducted by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University and Palo Alto Research Center gave a distribution of topics as well as growth from July to January in each field: [].

These numbers refer only to the quantity of articles: it is possible for one topic to contain a large number of short articles and another to contain a small number of large ones.

Through its " Wikipedia Loves Libraries " program, Wikipedia has partnered with major public libraries such as the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts to expand its coverage of underrepresented subjects and articles.

A study conducted by researchers at the University of Minnesota indicated that male and female editors focus on different coverage topics. There was a greater concentration of females in the People and Arts category, while males focus more on Geography and Science.

Research conducted by Mark Graham of the Oxford Internet Institute in indicated that the geographic distribution of article topics is highly uneven.

Africa is most underrepresented. An editorial in The Guardian in claimed that more effort went into providing references for a list of female porn actors than a list of women writers.

When multiple editors contribute to one topic or set of topics, systemic bias may arise, due to the demographic backgrounds of the editors. In , Wales claimed that the unevenness of coverage is a reflection of the demography of the editors, citing for example "biographies of famous women through history and issues surrounding early childcare".

Systemic bias on Wikipedia may follow that of culture generally, [ vague ] for example favoring certain nationalities, ethnicities or majority religions.

Biases of its own may include over-emphasis on topics such as pop culture, technology, and current events.

Taha Yasseri of the University of Oxford , in , studied the statistical trends of systemic bias at Wikipedia introduced by editing conflicts and their resolution.

Such a "mutually reverting edit pair" is defined where one editor reverts the edit of another editor who then, in sequence, returns to revert the first editor in the "mutually reverting edit pairs".

The results were tabulated for several language versions of Wikipedia. The English Wikipedia's three largest conflict rates belonged to the articles George W.

Bush , Anarchism , and Muhammad. Researchers from Washington University developed a statistical model to measure systematic bias in the behavior of Wikipedia's users regarding controversial topics.

The authors focused on behavioral changes of the encyclopedia's administrators after assuming the post, writing that systematic bias occurred after the fact.

Wikipedia has been criticized for allowing information of graphic content. Articles depicting what some critics have called objectionable content such as Feces , Cadaver , Human penis , Vulva , and Nudity contain graphic pictures and detailed information easily available to anyone with access to the internet, including children.

The site also includes sexual content such as images and videos of masturbation and ejaculation , illustrations of zoophilia , and photos from hardcore pornographic films in its articles.

It also has non-sexual photographs of nude children. The Wikipedia article about Virgin Killer — a album from the German rock band Scorpions —features a picture of the album's original cover, which depicts a naked prepubescent girl.

The original release cover caused controversy and was replaced in some countries. In December , access to the Wikipedia article Virgin Killer was blocked for four days by most Internet service providers in the United Kingdom after the Internet Watch Foundation IWF decided the album cover was a potentially illegal indecent image and added the article's URL to a "blacklist" it supplies to British internet service providers.

In April , Sanger wrote a letter to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, outlining his concerns that two categories of images on Wikimedia Commons contained child pornography, and were in violation of US federal obscenity law.

If we did, we would remove it. After some editors who volunteer to maintain the site argued that the decision to delete had been made hastily, Wales voluntarily gave up some of the powers he had held up to that time as part of his co-founder status.

One privacy concern in the case of Wikipedia is the right of a private citizen to remain a "private citizen" rather than a " public figure " in the eyes of the law.

A particular problem occurs in the case of a relatively unimportant individual and for whom there exists a Wikipedia page against her or his wishes.

In January , a German court ordered the German Wikipedia shut down within Germany because it stated the full name of Boris Floricic , aka "Tron", a deceased hacker.

On February 9, , the injunction against Wikimedia Deutschland was overturned, with the court rejecting the notion that Tron's right to privacy or that of his parents was being violated.

Wikipedia has a " Volunteer Response Team " that uses the OTRS system to handle queries without having to reveal the identities of the involved parties.

This is used, for example, in confirming the permission for using individual images and other media in the project.

Wikipedia has been described as harboring a battleground culture of sexism and harassment. Wikipedia is hosted and funded by the Wikimedia Foundation , a non-profit organization which also operates Wikipedia-related projects such as Wiktionary and Wikibooks.

The foundation relies on public contributions and grants to fund its mission. We are reinforcing that paid advocacy is not welcome.

Following the departure of Tretikov from Wikipedia due to issues concerning the use of the "superprotection" feature which some language versions of Wikipedia have adopted, Katherine Maher became the third executive director the Wikimedia Foundation in June Maher stated regarding the harassment issue that: "It establishes a sense within the community that this is a priority Wikipedia is also supported by many organizations and groups that are affiliated with the Wikimedia Foundation but independently run, called Wikimedia movement affiliates.

These affiliates participate in the promotion, development, and funding of Wikipedia. The Phase II software was repeatedly modified to accommodate the exponentially increasing demand.

Several MediaWiki extensions are installed [] to extend the functionality of the MediaWiki software. The site currently uses Lucene Search 2.

Computer programs called bots have often been used to perform simple and repetitive tasks, such as correcting common misspellings and stylistic issues, or to start articles such as geography entries in a standard format from statistical data.

An anti-vandal bot is programmed to detect and revert vandalism quickly. According to Andrew Lih , the current expansion of Wikipedia to millions of articles would be difficult to envision without the use of such bots.

Wikipedia receives between 25, and 60, page requests per second, depending on time of day. The web servers deliver pages as requested, performing page rendering for all the language editions of Wikipedia.

To increase speed further, rendered pages are cached in a distributed memory cache until invalidated, allowing page rendering to be skipped entirely for most common page accesses.

Wikipedia currently runs on dedicated clusters of Linux servers mainly Ubuntu. Following growing amounts of incoming donations exceeding seven digits in as recently reported, [60] the Foundation has reached a threshold of assets which qualify its consideration under the principles of industrial organization economics to indicate the need for the re-investment of donations into the internal research and development of the Foundation.

Community-produced news publications include the English Wikipedia's The Signpost , founded in by Michael Snow, an attorney, Wikipedia administrator and former chair of the Wikimedia Foundation board of trustees.

There are also several publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education.

When the project was started in , all text in Wikipedia was covered by the GNU Free Documentation License GFDL , a copyleft license permitting the redistribution, creation of derivative works, and commercial use of content while authors retain copyright of their work.

This made it a poor choice for a general reference work: for example, the GFDL requires the reprints of materials from Wikipedia to come with a full copy of the GFDL text.

In December , the Creative Commons license was released: it was specifically designed for creative works in general, not just for software manuals.

The license gained popularity among bloggers and others distributing creative works on the Web. The Wikipedia project sought the switch to the Creative Commons.

In April , Wikipedia and its sister projects held a community-wide referendum which decided the switch in June The handling of media files e.

Some language editions, such as the English Wikipedia, include non-free image files under fair use doctrine, while the others have opted not to, in part because of the lack of fair use doctrines in their home countries e.

Media files covered by free content licenses e. Wikipedia's accommodation of varying international copyright laws regarding images has led some to observe that its photographic coverage of topics lags behind the quality of the encyclopedic text.

The Wikimedia Foundation is not a licensor of content, but merely a hosting service for the contributors and licensors of the Wikipedia.

This position has been successfully defended in court. Because Wikipedia content is distributed under an open license, anyone can reuse or re-distribute it at no charge.

The content of Wikipedia has been published in many forms, both online and offline, outside the Wikipedia website. Obtaining the full contents of Wikipedia for reuse presents challenges, since direct cloning via a web crawler is discouraged.

Several languages of Wikipedia also maintain a reference desk , where volunteers answer questions from the general public.

According to a study by Pnina Shachaf in the Journal of Documentation , the quality of the Wikipedia reference desk is comparable to a standard library reference desk , with an accuracy of 55 percent.

Wikipedia's original medium was for users to read and edit content using any standard web browser through a fixed Internet connection.

Although Wikipedia content has been accessible through the mobile web since July , The New York Times on February 9, , quoted Erik Möller, deputy director of the Wikimedia Foundation, stating that the transition of internet traffic from desktops to mobile devices was significant and a cause for concern and worry.

And the shift to mobile editing has lagged even more. One principal concern cited by The New York Times for the "worry" is for Wikipedia to effectively address attrition issues with the number of editors which the online encyclopedia attracts to edit and maintain its content in a mobile access environment.

Bloomberg Businessweek reported in July that Google's Android mobile apps have dominated the largest share of global smartphone shipments for with Directly after the posted web interview, the representatives stated that Wikimedia would be applying an all-inclusive approach to accommodate as many mobile access systems as possible in its efforts for expanding general mobile access, including BlackBerry and the Windows Phone system, making market share a secondary issue.

In June Wikipedia launched en. In a newer mobile service was officially released, [] located at en. Several other methods of mobile access to Wikipedia have emerged.

Many devices and applications optimize or enhance the display of Wikipedia content for mobile devices, while some also incorporate additional features such as use of Wikipedia metadata See Wikipedia:Metadata , such as geoinformation.

Wikipedia Zero was an initiative of the Wikimedia Foundation to expand the reach of the encyclopedia to the developing countries.

Andrew Lih and Andrew Brown both maintain editing Wikipedia with smartphones is difficult and this discourages new potential contributors.

The number of Wikipedia editors has been declining after several years and Tom Simonite of MIT Technology Review claims the bureaucratic structure and rules are a factor in this.

Simonite alleges some Wikipedians use the labyrinthine rules and guidelines to dominate others and those editors have a vested interest in keeping the status quo.

Lih fears for Wikipedia's long-term future while Brown fears problems with Wikipedia will remain and rival encyclopedias will not replace it.

In —18, after a barrage of false news reports, both Facebook and YouTube announced they would rely on Wikipedia to help their users evaluate reports and reject false news.

Noam Cohen , writing in The Washington Post states, "YouTube's reliance on Wikipedia to set the record straight builds on the thinking of another fact-challenged platform, the Facebook social network, which announced last year that Wikipedia would help its users root out 'fake news'.

In February , The New York Times reported that Wikipedia was ranked fifth globally among all websites, stating "With 18 billion page views and nearly million unique visitors a month [ In addition to logistic growth in the number of its articles, [] Wikipedia has steadily gained status as a general reference website since its inception in According to "Wikipedia Readership Survey ", the average age of Wikipedia readers is 36, with a rough parity between genders.

Almost half of Wikipedia readers visit the site more than five times a month, and a similar number of readers specifically look for Wikipedia in search engine results.

About 47 percent of Wikipedia readers do not realize that Wikipedia is a non-profit organization. During the COVID pandemic , Wikipedia's coverage of the pandemic received international media attention, and brought an increase in Wikipedia readership overall.

Wikipedia's content has also been used in academic studies, books, conferences, and court cases. Wikipedia has also been used as a source in journalism, [] [] often without attribution, and several reporters have been dismissed for plagiarizing from Wikipedia.

In , Time magazine recognized Wikipedia's participation along with YouTube , Reddit , MySpace , and Facebook [] in the rapid growth of online collaboration and interaction by millions of people worldwide.

In July , Wikipedia was the focus of a minute documentary on BBC Radio 4 [] which argued that, with increased usage and awareness, the number of references to Wikipedia in popular culture is such that the word is one of a select band of 21st-century nouns that are so familiar Google , Facebook , YouTube that they no longer need explanation.

On September 28, , Italian politician Franco Grillini raised a parliamentary question with the minister of cultural resources and activities about the necessity of freedom of panorama.

He said that the lack of such freedom forced Wikipedia, "the seventh most consulted website", to forbid all images of modern Italian buildings and art, and claimed this was hugely damaging to tourist revenues.

On September 16, , The Washington Post reported that Wikipedia had become a focal point in the US election campaign , saying: "Type a candidate's name into Google, and among the first results is a Wikipedia page, making those entries arguably as important as any ad in defining a candidate.

Already, the presidential entries are being edited, dissected and debated countless times each day. Active participation also has an impact.

Law students have been assigned to write Wikipedia articles as an exercise in clear and succinct writing for an uninitiated audience.

A working group led by Peter Stone formed as a part of the Stanford -based project One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence in its report called Wikipedia "the best-known example of crowdsourcing In a opinion piece for Wired , Hossein Derakhshan describes Wikipedia as "one of the last remaining pillars of the open and decentralized web " and contrasted its existence as a text-based source of knowledge with social media and social networking services , the latter having "since colonized the web for television's values".

For Derakhshan, Wikipedia's goal as an encyclopedia represents the Age of Enlightenment tradition of rationality triumphing over emotions, a trend which he considers "endangered" due to the "gradual shift from a typographic culture to a photographic one, which in turn mean[s] a shift from rationality to emotions, exposition to entertainment".

Rather than " sapere aude " lit. This is while Wikipedia faces "a more concerning problem" than funding, namely "a flattening growth rate in the number of contributors to the website".

Consequently, the challenge for Wikipedia and those who use it is to "save Wikipedia and its promise of a free and open collection of all human knowledge amid the conquest of new and old television—how to collect and preserve knowledge when nobody cares to know.

Wikipedia won two major awards in May The second was a Judges' Webby Award for the "community" category.

In , readers of brandchannel. The award was presented to Wales by David Weinberger. In , Wikipedia was awarded both the annual Erasmus Prize , which recognizes exceptional contributions to culture, society or social sciences, [] and the Spanish Princess of Asturias Award on International Cooperation.

Many parodies target Wikipedia's openness and susceptibility to inserted inaccuracies, with characters vandalizing or modifying the online encyclopedia project's articles.

Comedian Stephen Colbert has parodied or referenced Wikipedia on numerous episodes of his show The Colbert Report and coined the related term wikiality , meaning "together we can create a reality that we all agree on—the reality we just agreed on".

In an episode of the television comedy The Office U. Perry Cox reacts to a patient who says that a Wikipedia article indicates that the raw food diet reverses the effects of bone cancer by retorting that the same editor who wrote that article also wrote the Battlestar Galactica episode guide.

In , the comedic website CollegeHumor produced a video sketch named "Professor Wikipedia", in which the fictitious Professor Wikipedia instructs a class with a medley of unverifiable and occasionally absurd statements.

The Dilbert comic strip from May 8, , features a character supporting an improbable claim by saying "Give me ten minutes and then check Wikipedia.

Some of the sketches were directly inspired by Wikipedia and its articles. In , comedian Daniel Tosh encouraged viewers of his show, Tosh.

On a later episode, he commented on the edits to the article, most of them offensive, which had been made by the audience and had prompted the article to be locked from editing.

On August 23, , the New Yorker website published a cartoon with this caption: "Dammit, Manning , have you considered the pronoun war that this is going to start on your Wikipedia page?

In December , John Julius Norwich stated, in a letter published in The Times newspaper, that as a historian he resorted to Wikipedia "at least a dozen times a day", and had never yet caught it out.

He described it as "a work of reference as useful as any in existence", with so wide a range that it is almost impossible to find a person, place or thing that it has left uncovered, and that he could never have written his last two books without it.

Wikipedia has also spawned several sister projects, which are also wikis run by the Wikimedia Foundation. These other Wikimedia projects include Wiktionary , a dictionary project launched in December , [] Wikiquote , a collection of quotations created a week after Wikimedia launched, Wikibooks , a collection of collaboratively written free textbooks and annotated texts, Wikimedia Commons , a site devoted to free-knowledge multimedia, Wikinews , for citizen journalism, and Wikiversity , a project for the creation of free learning materials and the provision of online learning activities.

In Wikivoyage , an editable travel guide, and Wikidata , an editable knowledge base, launched.

The most obvious economic effect of Wikipedia has been the death of commercial encyclopedias, especially the printed versions, e.

Carr wrote: "Implicit in the ecstatic visions of Web 2. I for one can't imagine anything more frightening. For instance, Chris Anderson , the editor-in-chief of Wired Magazine , wrote in Nature that the " wisdom of crowds " approach of Wikipedia will not displace top scientific journals , with their rigorous peer review process.

There is also an ongoing debate about the influence of Wikipedia on the biography publishing business. Wikipedia has been widely used as a corpus for linguistic research in computational linguistics , information retrieval and natural language processing.

In particular, it commonly serves as a target knowledge base for the entity linking problem, which is then called "wikification", [] and to the related problem of word sense disambiguation.

A MIT study suggests that words used on Wikipedia articles end up in scientific publications. Studies related to Wikipedia have been using machine learning and artificial intelligence to support various operations.

One of the most important areas—automatic detection of vandalism [] [] and data quality assessment in Wikipedia, [] may include different measures for articles and infoboxes.

Several interactive multimedia encyclopedias incorporating entries written by the public existed long before Wikipedia was founded.

This was the first interactive multimedia encyclopedia and was also the first major multimedia document connected through internal links , with the majority of articles being accessible through an interactive map of the UK.

The user interface and part of the content of the Domesday Project were emulated on a website until Several free-content, collaborative encyclopedias were created around the same period as Wikipedia e.

Everything2 , [] with many later being merged into the project e. The h2g2 encyclopedia is relatively lighthearted, focusing on articles which are both witty and informative.

Subsequent collaborative knowledge websites have drawn inspiration from Wikipedia. Some, such as Susning. Others use more traditional peer review , such as Encyclopedia of Life and the online wiki encyclopedias Scholarpedia and Citizendium.

The latter was started by Sanger in an attempt to create a reliable alternative to Wikipedia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Free online encyclopedia that anyone can edit. This article is about the online encyclopedia. For the English edition, see English Wikipedia.

For Wikipedia's home page, see Main Page. For Wikipedia's visitor introduction, see Wikipedia:About.

For other uses, see Wikipedia disambiguation. For a list of other encyclopedias, see Lists of encyclopedias. The logo of Wikipedia , a globe featuring glyphs from various writing systems.

Main Page of the English Wikipedia on July 19, Jimmy Wales Larry Sanger [1]. Main article: History of Wikipedia.

Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger. Main article: Nupedia. Play media. Number of English Wikipedia articles [76]. Main article: Vandalism on Wikipedia.

Further information: Wikipedia:Administration. Main article: Arbitration Committee. Main article: Wikipedia community. Main article: List of Wikipedias.

Cebuano 9. Swedish 6. German 4. French 4. Dutch 3. Polish 2. Waray 2. Vietnamese 2. Japanese 2.

Chinese 2. Arabic 1. Portuguese 1. Ukrainian 1. Other English 6,, Cebuano 5,, Swedish 3,, German 2,, French 2,, Dutch 2,, Russian 1,, Italian 1,, Spanish 1,, Polish 1,, Waray 1,, Vietnamese 1,, Japanese 1,, Chinese 1,, Arabic 1,, Portuguese 1,, Ukrainian 1,, Egyptian Arabic 1,, Persian , Die Suchtmedizin ist ein Fachbereich der Psychiatrie.

Sie befasst sich mit der Vorbeugung , Erkennung , Behandlung und Rehabilitation von Krankheitsbildern im Zusammenhang mit dem schädlichen Gebrauch psychotroper Substanzen und substanzungebundener Abhängigkeit.

Seit dem Grundsatzurteil des Bundessozialgerichts vom Juni [6] ist mit der Alkoholabhängigkeit erstmals ein Abhängigkeitssyndrom als Krankheit im Sinne der gesetzlichen Krankenversicherung anerkannt.

Sie und andere Kostenträger übernehmen seither die Kosten für die Behandlung von Begleiterkrankungen der Abhängigen sowie für Leistungen zur Rehabilitation, Erhaltung, Besserung und Wiederherstellung der Erwerbsfähigkeit.

Der erste Lehrstuhl für Abhängigkeitserkrankungen in Deutschland wurde am Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit in Mannheim eingerichtet.

Substanzverlangen oder Craving engl. Begierde, Verlangen ist ein Fachbegriff aus der Suchtmedizin. Craving oder constant craving umschreibt das kontinuierliche und nahezu unbezwingbare Verlangen eines Suchtkranken, sein Suchtmittel Alkohol , Tabak , sonstige Drogen zu konsumieren.

Es hat seine neurobiologische Grundlage in der Sensitivierung des Belohnungssystems im Gehirn, des mesolimbischen Systems.

Kritik am Begriff der Abhängigkeit umfasst die sprachliche Gleichsetzung von medizinisch betreuten Patienten, mit vorrangig körperlicher Abhängigkeit z.

Schmerzpatienten unter Morphiumbehandlung und auch stark psychisch Abhängigen, wie Heroinabhängigen oder Alkoholikern. Diese sei irreführend und hinderlich: Sie rufe bei Schmerzpatienten Angst vor dem Vollbild der körperlichen und psychischen Abhängigkeit hervor.

Wikipedians sometimes award one another virtual barnstars for good work. Broughton, John Reagle, Joseph Michael Jr. Retrieved June 1, Wikide-l Mailing list in FuГџball Tipps Prognosen. Retrieved December 5, The English Wikipedia is the English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Er dient nicht der Selbstdiagnose und ersetzt nicht eine Diagnose durch einen Arzt. Cormand, N. Band 13, FebruarS. In: Trends in pharmacological sciences. Band 19, Nummer 3, SeptemberS. BandNummer 16, AugustS. Die weitreichendsten Veränderungen passieren während der Entwicklungsphasen des Gehirns, am Beste Spielothek in Preunegg finden während der vorgeburtlichen pränatalen Entwicklung. Namensräume Projektseite Diskussion. In: DKFZ. Diese Belohnungsreduktion wurde nach drei Stunden ununterbrochenen Spielens aktiv. Sucht Wikipedia

Andrew Lih wrote that the English Wikipedia "didn't have the chance to go through a debate over whether there should be a British English Wikipedia or an American English Wikipedia" because the English Wikipedia was the original edition.

In Lih wrote, "No doubt, American spellings tend to dominate by default just because of sheer numbers. A " WikiProject " is a group of contributors who want to work together as a team to improve Wikipedia.

These groups often focus on a specific topic area for example, women's history , a specific location or a specific kind of task for example, checking newly created pages.

The English Wikipedia currently has over 2, WikiProjects and activity varies. In , in preparation for producing a print version, the English Wikipedia introduced an assessment scale of the quality of articles.

The range of quality classes begins with "Stub" very short pages , followed by "Start", "C" and "B" in increasing order of quality. Community peer review is needed for the article to enter one of the highest quality classes: either " good article ", "A" or the highest, " featured article ".

Of the about 4. One featured article per day, as selected by editors, appears on the main page of Wikipedia.

The articles can also be rated as per "importance" as judged by a WikiProject. Currently, there are 5 importance categories: "low", "mid", "high", "top", and "???

For a particular article, different WikiProjects may assign different importance levels. The Wikipedia Version 1. If an article or list receives different ratings by two or more WikiProjects, then the highest rating is used in the table, pie-charts, and bar-chart.

The software regularly auto-updates the data. Researcher Giacomo Poderi found that articles tend to reach featured status via the intensive work of a few editors.

Quality-wise distribution of over 5. Importance-wise distribution of over 5. In them, new data has to be entered by a Wikipedia editor i.

Automatic quality assessment of Wikipedia articles is a known and wide scientific problem. In the English Wikipedia has 1.

The average article in this language version has 22 categories, while number of unique categories per articles ratio is 0. In English Wikipedia articles related to Philosophy and Crime has the highest average quality.

Content about Philosophy is read more often and articles in Crime category have the highest authors' interest on average.

References in English Wikipedia are a key mechanism for monitoring and maintaining its high quality. At the time it had Percentages of articles written in various language families.

In March , The countries in which the English Wikipedia is the most popular language version of Wikipedia are shown in red.

Top 25 contributor countries to the English Wikipedia. Dark green: Native English speaking countries; light green: countries with English as a foreign language.

In April , the Wikimedia Foundation conducted a usability study on the English Wikipedia, questioning users about the editing mechanism.

Video marking English Wikipedia's milestone of five million articles on 1 November Investigative journalism by The Signpost in on changes to freedom of panorama copyright restrictions in Europe was covered by publications in multiple languages including German, [62] Italian, [63] Polish, [64] and Russian.

The Signpost has been the subject of academic analysis in publications including Sociological Forum , [68] the social movements journal Interface , [69] and New Review of Academic Librarianship ; [70] and was consulted for data on Wikipedia by researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Dartmouth College.

There are also a number of publications from the Wikimedia Foundation and multilingual publications such as the Wikimedia Blog and This Month in Education.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia. Main Page of the English Wikipedia in July See also: Wikipedia:Milestones.

Main article: Arbitration Committee. Main article: Criticism of Wikipedia. See also: Wikipedia Seigenthaler biography incident and Essjay controversy.

Main article: WikiProject. Featured lists 0. A class 0. Good articles 0. B class 2. C class 4. Start class Stub class Lists 3.

Unassessed 9. High 3. Medium Low Play media. See also: The Signpost. Wales considers himself to be the sole founder of Wikipedia and has told the Boston Globe that "it's preposterous" to call Sanger the co-founder.

He was identified as a co-founder of Wikipedia as early as September and referred to himself as being founder as early as January San Diego Union Tribune.

Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 15 October This Site Wants You". New York Times. Retrieved 12 April See m:List of Wikipedias.

Retrieved 21 September Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 6 June No Starch Press. Retrieved 30 January Retrieved 8 August The Age.

Australia: Fairfax Digital Network. Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 9 June Emory Law Journal. Retrieved 14 June Retrieved 1 April Los Angeles Times.

Archived from the original on 24 July Retrieved 19 January Bloomington, IL: Pantagraph. Associated Press. Retrieved 26 January Retrieved on 26 July Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 26 July Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 16 March Retrieved 28 October The remaining 11 candidates competed in an additional recall in the Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord for the Top 7 in the Live Shows.

Groups of men and women sang in groups of three or two, after which the jury sent four participants to the Live Shows. The remaining seven superstar aspirants had to perform solo performances, which led to the decision on the remaining three places.

At the first time in the History of the show there are only 7 contestants perform in the Live Shows.

Deutschland sucht den Superstar season Season Ramon Roselly.

3 thoughts on “Sucht Wikipedia

  1. Ich entschuldige mich, aber meiner Meinung nach lassen Sie den Fehler zu. Geben Sie wir werden besprechen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden reden.

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *